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Loss of
Species Diversity

Oil palm plantations are a poor substitute for native tropical forests. Unless governments in producer countries become better at protecting forests, the impacts of oil palm expansion on biodiversity will be substantial. (Fitzherbert, et al, 2008)

Risk Category Key: Critically Endangered very high risk of extinction | Endangered high risk of extinction | Vulnerable vulnerable to extinction | Near Threatened threat of extinction in the future, re-evaulation needed (IUCN Red List)

Sumatran & Bornean Orangutans

(Pongo abelii & Pongo pygmaeus)
Critically Endangered

It is estimated that over 100,000 Bornean orangutans were lost between 1999 and 2015 due to global demand for natural resources. The Sumatran orangutan is listed as one of the world’s 25 most endangered primates.
(Voigt et al 2018, Schwitzer et al 2015)

Pagai Island Macaque

(Macaca Pagensis)
Critically Endangered

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The remaining habitat for the Pagai Island Macai covers only a few thousand hectares. Unless those forest fragments become protected and connected, species survival is unlikely.
(Supriatna et al 2017)

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Sumatran Elephant

(Elephas maximus ssp. sumatranus)
Critically Endangered

Although the Sumatran Elephant is protected under Indonesia law, 85% of its habitat is located outside protected areas and is likely to be converted to agricultural and other purposes.
(Gopala et al 2011)

Sumatran & Malayan Tiger

(Panthera tigris ssp. sumantrae & Panthera tigris jacksoni)
Critically Endangered

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The Sumatran Tiger population was recently estimated to be only 514 ± 241 tigers in the seven priority landscapes. Sustained oil palm expansion, forest degradation, and poaching continue to threaten the few remaining tiger populations on the island. (Luskin et al 2017)

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Sumatran Rhinoceros

(Dicerorhinus sumatrensis)
Critically Endangered

The Sumatran rhino is the smallest and last form of the two-horned rhino in Asia that has lived on the planet for 20 million years. In 2013 the IUCN estimated its population at less than 100 individuals.
(IUCN SSC 2013)

Pig-Tailed, Snub Nosed Monkey

(Simias concolor)
Critically Endangered

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The Pig-Tailed, Snub Nosed Monkey is listed as one of the world’s 25 most endangered primates.
(Schwitzer et al 2015)

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Mitred Leaf Monkey

(Presbytis melalophos)
Critically Endangered

The Mitred Leaf Monkey lost 62% of its forest habitat between 2000 and 2010.
(Supriatna, J., et al. 2017)

Javan Slow Loris

(Nycticebus javanicus)
Critically Endangered

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The Javan slow loris is listed as one of the world’s 25 most endangered primates.
(Schwitzer et al 2015)

Sumatran Ground Cuckoo

(Carpococcyx viridis)
Critically Endangered

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No Photo Available

Palm Borneo Frog

(Leptobrachella palmata)
Endangered

Malayan Tapir

(Tapirus indicus)
Endangered

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Dark-handed Gibbon

(Hylobates Agilis)
Endangered

Probiscus Monkey

(Nasalis larvatus)
Endangered

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Otter Civet

(Cynogale bennettii)
Endangered

Borneo Bay Cat

(Catopuma badia)
Endangered

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Bornean Gibbon

(Hylobates muelleri)
Endangered

Of the currently known 504 species of primates, more than 60% are threatened, while three-quarters of species are suffering population declines. In Asia, 73% of 119 native species are in danger.
(Gross, M. 2017)

Flat Headed Cat

(Prionailurus planiceps)
Endangered

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Lar Gibbon (juvenile pictured)

(Hylobates Lar)
Endangered

Golden-bellied Mentawai Island Langur

(Presebytis pofenziani)
Endangered

No Photo Available

Hairy-Nosed Otter

(Lutra sumatrana)
Endangered

Borneo Water Shrew

(Chimarrogale phaeura)
Endangered

No Photo Available
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Sunda Clouded Leopard
& Clouded Leopard

(Neofelis diardi & Neofelis nebulosi)
Vulnerable

Malayan Sun Bear

(Helarctos malayanus)
Vulnerable

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Horsfield's Tarsier

(Tarsius bancanus)
Vulnerable

Rhinocerous Hornbill

(Buceros rhinoceros)
Near Threatened

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Salvadori's Pheasant

(Lophura inornata)
Near Threatened

Silvered Leaf Monkey

(Trachypithecus cristatus)
Near Threatened

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Bibliography

Fitzherbert EB, Struebig M, Morel A, Danielsen F, Brühl C, Donald PF, Phalan B (2008) How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 538–545

Gopala, A., Hadian, O., Sunarto, ., Sitompul, A., Williams, A., Leimgruber, P., Chambliss, S.E. & Gunaryadi, D. (2011) Elephas maximus ssp. sumatranus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T199856A9129626. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T199856A9129626.en. Downloaded on 04 March 2018.

Gross, M. (2017) Primates in peril. Current Biology, 27:12, R573-R576. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.06.002

IUCN SSC (International Union for Conservation of Nature, Species Survival Commission) Last chance for the Sumatran rhino–International news release. 2013. Available: http://www.iucn.org/content/last-chance-Sumatran-rhino

Luskin M, Albert W, Tobler M (2017) Sumatran tiger survival threatened by deforestation despite increasing densities in parks. Nature Communications, 8: 1783, doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01656-4

Schwitzer, C., Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B., Chiozza, F., Williamson, E.A., Wallis, J. and Cotton, A. (eds.). 2015. Primates in Peril: The World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates 2014-2016. IUCN SSC Primate

Supriatna J, Dwiyahreni A, Winarni N, Mariati S, Margules, C (2017) Deforestation of Primate Habitat on Sumatra and Adjacent Islands, Indonesia. Primate Conservation (31): 71-82

Voigt M, Wich S, Ancrenaz M, Wells J, Wilson K, Kühl H (2018) Global Demand for Natural Resources Eliminated More Than 100,000 Bornean Orangutans. Current Biology 28, 1-9. doi: org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.01.053